Converting WMA/MP3 and SWF/MP4 using FFMPEG

Using Apple MAC OSX to convert WMA to MP3

  • in terminal app, install brew, run: ruby -e “$(curl -fsSL” < /dev/null 2> /dev/null
  • in terminal app, run “brew install ffmpeg”
  • then you can run a command such as “ffmpeg -i input.wma -q:a 0 output.mp3” to convert a file called input.wma to output.mp3
  • if you have all the WMA files in the same directory/folder, you can create a script that will convert them all in one go
  • save the 6 lines below into a text file in the same directory as the WMA files e.g., called the file my_converter
  • make the script executable with the command “chmod 700 my_converter”
  • run the script with the command “./my_converter” (without the double-quotes)
  • you can change the 128k to something like 192k or smaller/bigger depending on the quality you want to MP3 to have
  • the 44100 frequency can also be increased to something like 48000 if you want
  • Below is the script (assumes all the source files are in the same directory)

echo WMA to mp3 converter! Work begins!
for FILE in *.wma; do
echo -e “Processing file ‘$FILE'”;
ffmpeg -i “${FILE}” -vn -ab 128k -ar 44100 -y “${FILE%.wma}.mp3”;

Convert Flash SWF to MP4 using Linux

– Install ffmpeg (CentOS 7)
$ sudo yum install epel-release
$ sudo yum localinstall –nogpgcheck
$ sudo yum install ffmpeg ffmpeg-devel

– Below is the script (assumes all the source files are in the same directory)

echo SWF to MP4 converter! Work begins!
for FILE in *.swf; do
echo -e “Processing file ‘$FILE'”;
ffmpeg -i “${FILE}” “${FILE}.mp4”;

NOTE: the conversion didn’t work out.

– Then I found some reference to using SWFtools and Gnash

git clone git://
sudo yum install -y agg-devel boost-devel SDL-devel GConf2-devel expat expat-devel libjpeg-devel speex-devel fontconfig-devel giflib-devel dejagnu curl-devel haxe

cd gnash/
./configure –enable-renderer=agg –enable-gui=dump –disable-menus –enable-media=ffmpeg –disable-jemalloc
sudo make install

NOTE: the conversions didn’t work properly, but old Firefox versions such as 47 can play the flash files. You can find Firefox 47 portable with flash on the Internet.
Just download it, run it, and choose “File -> Open File …” from the Firefox menu (ALT+F) and select the flash file
do not use this browser for regular browsing since it is hold and likely hackable 🙂

The Elfin Princess

Into the same tavern walked the elfin princess;
Wielder of magic;
Third in line to the throne of Frigga;
Here as an ambassador of peace

From her very lips I heard she suffered a loss
Her head still held high and her back straight
But from time to time you see the pain fleet across her face
Under her hoodie and her hair, are ears that hear a butterfly flap its wings a mile away

I have been asked the color of her eyes
I do not know for I fear to look too closely
I might look too deep or too long and be lost forever

Alcohol affects not one of her race
She can down a stein just as well as a thousand
But for mere mortals sake, a cup or two would do

What lives in her little purse?
A potion?
An elixir?
An army?  
A bow?
Some arrows?
A portal?

She’s fine of form and stature
Be not deceived,
Her strength is neither in her arms nor legs
With her mind, she will make you kneel

Her magic attracts all and sundry:
It makes the flowers grow;
The heart light;
The grass green;
The heavens weep on the farmer’s crops 

Her name is Jayde;
Princess Jayde;
Elfin princess;
Wielder of magic;
Third in line to the throne of Frigga;
Here as an ambassador of peace 

For Latara … 2021

2 Corinthians 4:16-18: “So we do not lose heart. Though our outer self is wasting away, our inner self is being renewed day by day. For this light momentary affliction is preparing for us an eternal weight of glory beyond all comparison, as we look not to the things that are seen but to the things that are unseen. For the things that are seen are transient, but the things that are unseen are eternal.”

Make me laugh

How or where do I start? If I have a dollar for every lady’s dating profile I have come across where the condition that takes pride of place is “make me laugh”, I would be a millionaire. Yes, I do a lot of “swiping”. I am told it’s a game of numbers. 

I was chatting with a friend one day, and she started laughing because I just had my thumb swiping right without looking at the screen. If I do match with someone I am not interested in, I could always “unmatch”. Of course, there have been some cringe-worthy moments when (even though my profile is configured as “interested in women” only) I find myself matched with a guy. Those are the times I swiftly find the unmatch button! I am not homophobic, but I am only interested in women. Most of these occurrences are with either Bi or gay guys who have probably set their profile to match both sexes or just guys. 

Back to the subject, the following is my opinion at the time of writing this piece and I reserve the right to change it at any time. 

I think it is time women realize the simple requirement of “make me laugh” is likely a huge contributing factor to the proliferation of single baby mamas. Lots of guys have the skill to laugh all the way into your pants, and laugh all the way out, leaving you with a baby to raise by yourself while chasing them around for child support. 

I know a lady under 30 with five kids (not all the same father) who’s still look for a “good man to make her laugh”. You would think after 5 kids, it would be clear to her that the “make me laugh” kitsch is not “working” for her.  Maybe she needs someone to hit her over the head with a dirty diaper.

Yes, lots of guys who will “make you laugh” have no sense of responsibility for anything other than themselves – some don’t even have that. The scales only fall from your eyes when it’s too late – when there’s one or more kids involved. Then with some, the abuse starts, and the lady is wondering why the guy changed. No, he didn’t change. Your primary requirement was “make me laugh” and that’s easy when the only responsibility was still to take you out to dinner, parties, clubs, exploring. 

I watch a lot of true crime shows, and it’s no longer surprising to me the number of women killed by their partners (compare 62% of women killed by their partners who are mostly men to just 5% of men killed by their partners who are mostly women). It’s a vicious circle. Single baby mamas raise these boys with no father figures to teach them how to be a man and have respect for themselves and others. All the learning they have done is from their peers and the neighborhood older “bad” boys with no discernible direction in life beyond making the next quick buck. Who would have made several trips to jail by the time they are out of their teenage years and it’s all downhill from there. They in turn produce single baby mamas and the cycle continues. Producing these boys and men who won’t or can’t take no. The famous cliche “if I can’t have you, then no one else” repeats itself over and over again. 

You are in your early twenties and already saddled with a kid or more. No, it’s not because you or the other party changed. It’s because you were too young; it’s because you didn’t see beyond the “make me laugh”, it’s because you didn’t see beyond the exciting trips and partying when it was just the two of you; it’s because you think you are “grown” at 18; it’s because you got your first car at 16 making you believe you are independent and mature; it’s because you made your “own money” from working part-time at some eatery. It’s because you started dating at 14. It’s because some parents and guardians that should know better, in the name of equality, believe that if boys can run wild, they can let girls do to. But boys don’t get pregnant. Boys don’t carry a living being in their bellies for 9 months, so it’s easy for them not to have an attachment to the little screaming bundle that keeps you up at night. **

Women need to be taught to have a higher standard than “make me laugh.”

Of course, I may just be bitter that I am single because I can’t make anyone laugh.

– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – Finito – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

** I am simplifying the scope of the problem of course. Other factors such as abuse, trauma, drugs, etc also come into play. 

Building Microsoft CBL-Mariner (Linux) ISO

NOTE: I was able to build the ISO on Ubuntu 20.04 as the work platform (I got lots of errors with Ubuntu 18.04)

The only guide that worked for me is: but I made some changes to the procedure (i.e., I built CBL-Mariner instead of CBL-MarinerDemo)

root@ub2004:/wip# add-apt-repository ppa:longsleep/golang-backports
root@ub2004:/wip# apt-get update
root@ub2004:/wip# apt -y install -y make tar wget curl rpm qemu-utils golang-1.15-go genisoimage python-minimal bison gawk
root@ub2004:/wip# apt -y install pigz
root@ub2004:/wip# ln -vsf /usr/lib/go-1.15/bin/go /usr/bin/go
root@ub2004:/wip# curl -fsSL -o
root@ub2004:/wip# sh
root@ub2004:/wip# usermod -aG docker $USER

root@ub2004:/wip# git clone
root@ub2004:/wip# pushd CBL-Mariner/toolkit
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner/toolkit# git checkout 1.0-stable
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner/toolkit# make package-toolkit REBUILD_TOOLS=y
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner/toolkit# cd ..
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner# cp out/toolkit-1.0.20210722.0141-x86_64.tar.gz .
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner# tar -xzvf toolkit-*.tar.gz
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner# cd toolkit/
root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner/toolkit# make iso REBUILD_TOOLS=y REBUILD_PACKAGES=n CONFIG_FILE=./imageconfigs/full.json

root@ub2004:/wip/CBL-Mariner/toolkit# du -sh /wip/CBL-Mariner/out/images/full/full-1.0.20210722.0200.iso

678M /wip/CBL-Mariner/out/images/full/full-1.0.20210722.0200.iso

I was able to install the ISO on VirtualBox.

You can follow the steps on this page to install the output ISO on VirtualBox:

VMWare OVFTools required to build OVA CBL-mariner images (VHDX, OVA/VMDK)

– download 64-bit Linux VMWare-tools from
# chmod a+x VMware-ovftool-4.4.1-16812187-lin.x86_64.bundle
# ./VMware-ovftool-4.4.1-16812187-lin.x86_64.bundle
(NOTE: “./VMware-ovftool-4.4.1-16812187-lin.x86_64.bundle –uninstall-product vmware-ovftool” to uninstall)

– # make image REBUILD_TOOLS=y REBUILD_PACKAGES=n CONFIG_FILE=./imageconfigs/core-ova.json
(builds OVA, VMDK, and VMX files in CBL-Mariner/out/images/ )

– # make image REBUILD_TOOLS=y REBUILD_PACKAGES=n CONFIG_FILE=./imageconfigs/core-efi.json
(builds a 381MB VHDX file in CBL-Mariner/out/images/core-efi/ )

NOTE: in the VMDK file, the password field for the root user in the /etc/shadow file is set to <NULL>. Which meant that after creating a VM with the VMDK, I couldn’t login after I booted up the CBL-Mariner. I had to slave the VMDK to another VM, in order to manually change the <NULL> to the encrypted value of a known password. Alternatively, you can use the VMware disk tool to mount the VMDK after generating it on the Ubuntu instance, and edited the /etc/shadow file. On the other hand, the username and password for the CBLMarinerDemo is mariner_user  and p@ssw0rd

Thou shalt know thy neighbors

No, I do not mean camping outside their house or becoming a nuisance. But go out of your way if necessary to say hello regularly. 

To the subject of this article, I was reading about a recent incident where a lady was attacked in her house (by an ex or so) and she made it out, and all the way to a neighbor’s house where she screamed and knocked on the door around 3am or so. 

The neighbor heard the scream, turned over, and went back to sleep. 

In the morning he discovered blood streaks on his door. The attacker apparently trailed the lady and dragged her back to her house and finished the job. 

From the neighbor’s comment you can sense he was a little sad he didn’t get up, but from the way he referred to the lady, I wouldn’t even suggest they were acquaintances. 

Now, this is all conjecture after the fact so we can never be sure of what difference it would have made if any to the subsequent events that took place. But it is possible the neighbor heard the scream, and his brain subconsciously goes something like: (1) no one is breaking into my house, (2) I didn’t hear my name, (3) I don’t really know anyone in this neighborhood, (4) it’s not my business, (5) go back to sleep. 

Now consider the difference it might have made if for example the victim had regularly greeted this neighbor (at a minimum), or gone a step further and had known the neighbor’s name, and instead of just screaming, had screamed the neighbor’s actual name out in her distress.  The neighbor’s brain might instead have gone: (1) no one is breaking into my house, (2) was that my name I heard? (3) sounds like that lady a few houses down the street that always says hello, (4) I better get up and make sure she’s not in trouble. 

So yes, we have the extreme at one end where neighbors become busybodies, and the other extreme where even though we are just yards apart we might as well have been on different continents. We need to find a middle ground. The typical African and possibly other cultures (which for some reason appears to have a correlation with third world nations) almost never have a neighbor who is a stranger. Whereas the independence (and huge personal space) that an affluent lifestyle associated with first world nations have over time created the opposite – strangers that may have dwelled next to each other for years or decades. 

I am also guilty of the same thing. I have new neighbors on two sides. To the neighbors at the back, I did say hi once, to which they responded but it didn’t go beyond that. I do not know their names. On one side is a new Hispanic family to which I do not even believe we have ever exchanged greetings. Part of the reason of course is that we all literally arrive at home and disappear inside our various houses. 

This lack of connection does not bode well for a neighbor getting into trouble and expecting some help from those around. Yes, people will call the police if the disturbance is obvious or loud enough, but in general refuse to really “engage”. They may step out when the neighborhood is flooded in “blue” with their lights flashing, but usually by then the damage is already done, whereas maybe even a neighbor putting on their floodlights and stepping outside during the incident itself (not saying they put themselves in danger) may cause an attacker to cease long enough to make a difference to the outcome. 

Ultimately, lack of familiarity makes our response impersonal. We literally fail to respond, or do the minimum possible. I always try to imagine when driving if someone cuts me off for example, that the person is an acquaintance at a minimum. That literally prevents me from having any angry thoughts that might escalate to road rage. For example, say you recognize the car, what are you likely to do? You might smile, pull level with the other car, wind down your window, get their attention, and say something like “you clown! You just cut me off!” with a smile on your face and in your voice. To which the other party (also recognizing you) might respond with a smile and a wave acknowledging you in return. Even on a bad day where you are completely frustrated, you would still likely not react angrily if you recognize the other car. In fact it may completely change your mood for the better. 

But when we have no personal connection with another party, our default response is nonchalance at a minimum, suspicious, or aggressive at the other end of the scale. 

It also makes me wonder what difference it might have made to some of the suicide cases in the news regularly. Take some of the well-known celebrities that have committed suicide. They seem happy, have many friends, have every material thing their heart desires, appear well adjusted, then their suicide seems to happen out of the blues. Now I am not talking of the celebrity friends they have, that they only meet on the red carpet or at exclusive parties; nor the celebrity friends living in the same zip code each behind their 10-foot electrified-fence mansions (nothing wrong with having a mansion), but instead say they have a run-of-the-mill neighbor (who would also be rich but not necessarily a celebrity) who says a genuine hello from time to time. Maybe the person with suicidal tendencies may have come across the neighbor on the faithful day and that “hello” might be all it takes to make a difference. 

So make some effort to know your neighbors. Respect their privacy of course. The line maybe subtle but a greeting here and there hurts no one. An invitation to a house party or a kid’s birthday party (if they also have children) may taw the ice or foster some familiarity or help know where that line is where the neighbor is comfortable interacting over. For example, if they appear uninterested or gruff, don’t take it personal, still say hello wherever your paths cross. You can never be sure what difference you might be making in their lives as well as yours. 

7:30pm Hogle Zoo, SLC, Utah. 

Timeout with the Raspberry Pi 2

There is a website called EstateSales ( ) where you can bid for all sorts of stuff (new, used, etc.) and I believe they have a presence in most US states if not the larger cities.

I bidded on a Raspberry Pi 2 (status not tested) and got it for $2. If I add the gas to drive to the pickup location and back, maybe the total would come to about $8. I then bought a USB WiFi card for $4 on Ebay since the Pi 2 does not come with a WiFi inbuilt chip on the board.

Below are my notes from the “experience”:

– – – – This section is only if you can’t get the Pi on the network via its Ethernet interface – – –

– My first issue was that the Pi came with a HDMI port for which I didn’t have the cable, but fortunately my German friend left a Monitor with a VGA-to-HDMI cable attached. I connected it to the Pi as well as a USB keyboard and powered the Pi using its USB port connected to a USB port on my desktop PC.

– Second issue was that I didn’t know the password of the pi user since it was pre-owned so I had to intercept the boot process (the splash screen says to press the SHIFT key), append “init=/bin/bash” to the “kernel” line, and then issue a “mount -o rw,remount /” followed by a password reset for the pi and root users.
– – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

– Connect through a console (HDMI Monitor and USB keyboard). If you decide not to get a WiFi card and you don’t want to attach the Pi via an Ethernet cable to your router, you can do the following to get access to the Pi from a Windows PC that you have connected to it via its Ethernet port (I couldn’t get it to access the Internet via ICS for some reason).
– Set ethernet interface eth0 to dhcp in /etc/network/interfaces
– Connect it to a Windows PC via an ethernet cable
– Configure ICS on say the WIFI interface of the Windows PC with the Ethernet as the “home network” (ICS then pops-up the message that it will assign to the Ethernet interface on the PC)
– Run “arp -a” on the Windows PC and look for all IPs in the 192.168.137.x (one of them will be the IP assigned to the raspberry by ICS)
– The interface on this specific Pi has the MAC address b8-27-eb-90-b3-30 which is also visible in the “arp -a” output
– SSH to the Pi IP address and login with the root or pi user

– NOTE: ping the broadcast IP of the IP address assigned to the Windows Ethernet interface may help get the MAC/IP assigned to the Raspberry Pi to show up in the output of the “arp -a” command e.g., “ping”

– NOTE: if you can’t get the Pi to be assigned an IP address via ICS, do the following:

  1. Make sure ICS service is running on the Windows PC (restart it if necessary)
  2. Disable ICS on the NIC that is being shared via ICS (e.g., the WiFi NIC) then re-enable ICS

NOTE: watch out for the SD card on which the O/S is installed. It is very easy to eject it without noticing – if you are on the console, you will see it start to display “read errors” on the SD card and essentially stops working. If you are just attempting to boot up the Pi, it won’t boot at all since the O/S is on the SD card.

Issue three: The much older kernel on the Pi (I think it was 3.18 from year 2016) did not have drivers for the Ralink WiFi (USB) card I got off E-Bay. I was able to upgrade the O/S to a 4.19 kernel, but later decided I would just install a completely new Pi distribution by using the Windows Raspberry Pi Imager (there is a version for Ubuntu as well). The Imager prompts to select a O/S distro/version and the target Storage (I inserted the SD card into my Windows laptop using a Micro SD Adapter) and it will then download the selected image and (over)write it to the the SD card so backup its contents first if you need them.
The latest version as at 05/26/2021 is the 1.1GB Raspberry Pi OS (32-bit) released 2021-03-04 (includes the Pi Desktop).
There is also a 0.4GB Raspberry Pi OS Lite (32-bit) with no desktop environment released on the same date (2021-03-04)

– In order to access the instance via SSH, you need to enable the SSH service first:
sudo systemctl enable ssh
sudo systemctl start ssh

– I decided to configure the Pi to boot into multi-user mode (CLI with network services) instead of graphical mode which will consume more system resources:
sudo systemctl set-default multi-user

My particular Ralink WiFI USB card had the MAC address 00:E0:2D:90:70:34
Sample network interface file content:

– Configure the WiFI network you intend the system to join in the file /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf :

ctrl_interface=DIR=/var/run/wpa_supplicant GROUP=netdev


– Configure the network interfaces in the file /etc/network/interfaces

source-directory /etc/network/interfaces.d

auto lo
iface lo inet loopback

alow-hotplug wlan0
auto wlan0
iface wlan0 inet dhcp
wpa-conf /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf

auto eth0
iface eth0 inet dhcp

– Reconfigure the WiFI start the card:
sudo wpa_cli -i wlan0 reconfigure
sudo ifdown wlan0
sudo ifup wlan0

– Restart the networking service if necessary:
sudo systemctl restart networking

– Troubleshooting: To scan and check WiFI networks, use the command “sudo iwlist wlan0 scan” and check the essid field. This field should be the same as what you entered in the ssid field in the /etc/wpa_supplicant/wpa_supplicant.conf file .

root@raspberrypi:~# lsusb
Bus 001 Device 002: ID 0424:9514 Standard Microsystems Corp.
Bus 001 Device 001: ID 1d6b:0002 Linux Foundation 2.0 root hub
Bus 001 Device 003: ID 0424:ec00 Standard Microsystems Corp.
Bus 001 Device 004: ID 1c4f:0002 SiGma Micro Keyboard TRACER Gamma Ivory
Bus 001 Device 005: ID 0bda:c811 Realtek Semiconductor Corp. <—- needs drivers
Bus 001 Device 006: ID 148f:7601 Ralink Technology, Corp. <—- supported out of the box by the 2021-03-04 distro

Just for fun: I also had a Realtek WiFi USB card as well that is normally connected to my Windows Desktop PC so I can avoid using an Ethernet cable to connect it to the Internet router which is somewhere else in the house. You can see it is detected from the output of the “lsusb” command above but the Pi OS did not have in-built drivers for it. You can install the drivers as follows:

sudo wget -O /usr/bin/install-wifi
sudo chmod +x /usr/bin/install-wifi
sudo /usr/bin/install-wifi
(this script detects the card, downloads and install the appropriate driver and configures the card. In this case, it downloaded the driver file 8821cu-5.10.17-1403.tar.gz)

– Some Links (lots of commands related to setting up networking on the Pi) (drivers for Realtek cards) (where I got the reference to the install-wifi script)

Pi 2 with the WiFI USB card

Using Let’s encrypt SSL certificates

Letsencrypt certificates are only valid for 90 days so you have to continually renew them.

  1. Install Certbot/Letsencrypt on a Linux system where we will be generating the certificates for our website (the install command below actually installs a “certbot” package):
    sudo yum install -y
    sudo yum install -y
    sudo yum install -y letsencrypt

  2. Generate the certificate (command):
$ sudo su -
# cd /etc/letsencrypt/ && certbot certonly -d ',*' --manual

– NOTE: the certbot command prompts you to create a DNS TXT record (you MUST do this before pressing the Enter key to continue!!)

Please deploy a DNS TXT record under the name with the following value:


Before continuing, verify the record is deployed.

2b. In cPanel, use “Zone Editor” in the “Domains” section to add the TXT record (e.g., with the displayed value (e.g., obLL0Cludw4VpwXJuMG0AFlRryUbdb0ozHiNrgAvqx8)

2c. In the Linux session, press the Enter key to continue

2d. You are prompted to create a file on your webserver (or website). You MUST do so before pressing the ENTER key to continue:

Create a file containing just this data:


And make it available on your web server at this URL:

2e. In cPanel, use the “File Editor” in the “Files” section to create the indicated file with the indicated content e.g., (vxp4GyEKqvkniMdE_20XCR2RpPiPPjfvhAqgAtC-8Hk.vrNHNIC3FVyuv2kJU8JcnmZK_lfarmjV_FDWrtWY1wc)

  • the file is in directory /home2/itayemi/public_html/.well-known/acme-challenge/
  • use the “+File” link to the top left of the “File Manager” page to add the new file
  • then click on the file, and select the “Edit” button to edit the file to add the content,
  • then click the “Save Changes” button, then the “Close” button


2f. In the Linux session, press the Enter key to continue, the process will complete and display the certificate details e.g.:

  • Congratulations! Your certificate and chain have been saved at:
    Your key file has been saved at:
    Your certificate will expire on 2021-09-11. To obtain a new or
    tweaked version of this certificate in the future, simply run
    certbot again. To non-interactively renew all of your
    certificates, run “certbot renew”

for each domain/FQDN, select “Update Certificate” link under the “Actions” column, populate the “Certificate: (CRT)” textbox with the content of the file /etc/letsencrypt/live/ on the Linux system, and populate the “Private Key (KEY)” field with the content of the file /etc/letsencrypt/live/, then click the “Install Certificate” button.



  • Set up a local instance of Apache (httpd) webserver to be able to renew the certificates (since I don’t have direct file-system access to the actual web-server where my site is hosted unless I login via cPanel, this allows me to automate renewal of the certificate “locally”, then manually copy it to my actual site’s cPanel configuration). This is a one-time activity.
    $ sudo yum install -y httpd
    $ sudo yum install -y python2-certbot-apache
    $ sudo systemctl enable httpd
    $ sudo systemctl start httpd
  • Add a line to /etc/hosts so that all utilities know to point to “localhost” as the webserver for
  • Run the command “sudo egrep -e ‘^User|^Group’ /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf” to know the User and Group the webserver is running as (e.g., “User apache” and “Group apache” – to be used in the next step)
  • Create the directory and files for
    sudo mkdir -p /var/www/
    sudo chown -R apache:apache /var/www/
    sudo chmod -R 755 /var/www/
    sudo echo “” > /var/www/
  • Create a “VirtualHost” for on the local Apache Server (e.g., create file /etc/httpd/conf.d/ containing the following lines):
<VirtualHost *:443>
   SSLEngine on
   SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/localhost.crt
   SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/private/localhost.key
   DocumentRoot /var/www/
<VirtualHost *:80>
   SSLEngine on
   SSLCertificateFile /etc/pki/tls/certs/localhost.crt
   SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/pki/tls/private/localhost.key
   DocumentRoot /var/www/
  • Restart the HTTPD server:
    $ sudo systemctl restart httpd

  • Install a root crontab entry to renew the certificates every 90-days (2:45AM on the 25th day of March,June,September, and December):

# sudo crontab -l
# autorenew certificates for * which should generate new
# valid certificates every 3 months. Note that I still have to login
# to cpanel and update the CRT and Private key fields of each
# defined FQDN with the new certificate generated by certbot
#i.e., cert.pem and privkey.pem
45 2 25 3,6,9,12 * cd /etc/letsencrypt/ && certbot certonly --force-renewal -d ',*' --apache -n

  • INSTALLING THE LETSENCRYPT Certificate in cPanel (repeat every 3 months when the certificate expires):
  • Copy the updated files /etc/letsencrypt/live/ and /etc/letsencrypt/live/ from the local server
  • Login to (Client Area) -> Select “Services” -> “My Services” from the menu
  • Click on the “Status” button to the right of the target service e.g.,
  • Expand the “Actions” menu (left-side of page) and click on “Login to cPanel”
  • In cPanel, select “SSL/TLS” (under the “Security” section)
  • For each listed FQDNs/certificate row, select the “Update Certificate” link under the “Actions” column; populate the “Certificate: (CRT)” textbox with the content of the file /etc/letsencrypt/live/ on the Linux system, and populate the “Private Key (KEY)” field with the content of the file /etc/letsencrypt/live/, then click the “Install Certificate” button.

Leaders of Today

Leaders of Today

When I was in primary school, there was this marching song that had “we are the leaders of tomorrow” as part of the lyrics. My voice used to overshadow those of my classmates as that was my favourite part of the song, YES! I dreamt of being at the helm of affairs, I aspired to be a very powerful woman and that song always kept my hopes high. It gave me the assurance that my dreams would definitely be accomplished.
I never liked the way things were going on in the country: the bad roads, the poor infrastructure and poor electricity supply. I remember how excited we used to be any time we had electricity supply. The shout of “UP NEPA!” always filled the air especially from little children like me. Those were the things I could see and understand as the problems of the country. I never knew they were more than that.

My assumption of my future, my dear tomorrow, was a setting where children of my generation, strictly my generation, would be at the helm of affairs and occupying relevant and significant positions in the society. I felt it was “turn-by-turn” and I believed our leaders, parents, teachers were living their own future and probably in the next twenty years we would be given the opportunity to live ours. I heard stories about the military heads of state and how at thirty (years) some of them had already assumed office. All these further inspired me as a pupil and I believed if I worked hard I should also be in a relevant position before thirty. I should be a woman of my own. I saw in me a younger version of Queen Elizabeth, Helen Sirleaf Johnson, Funmilayo Ransome Kuti, Flora Shaw, etc. I dreamt of being greater and more relevant than these women.

Childhood was sweet and unique, the inspirations were perpetual. Things looked so easy and the future was equally bright, very bright! I really miss being a child, there was nothing to worry about.
I moved from primary to secondary school with my head still high. I always wore a contented smile anytime I remembered my dear tomorrow, I looked forward to the day when the reign of those old men and woman would pass away and another generation would be opportuned to display their potentials. I was in a hurry, I couldn’t wait for my turn to come. I waited patiently for the announcement day but unfortunately nothing like that happened. I still kept seeing the same faces on TV, I heard the same names. These are the people I have always noticed since I was in primary one and even till JSS2. Their names were still all over the place. Seven years and nothing like change! I was in a great labyrinth and I wondered if those people don’t allow others when would it finally get to my turn.

I got to SSS2 and it was still the same story. I was forced to ask my teacher why it was a particular caucus that dominated the important positions in our society and she explained to me that it was the kind of society we live in. The taste of power and wealth is so sweet that a particular set of people aspire to enjoy it alone. They keep passing the baton to themselves and the deserving ones are not given any opportunity. Then it dawned on me that the future may never come. My dear tomorrow might just be a fiction. I was very confused. My whole perspective about the future was wrong!

I used to think there was a regulatory body in charge of the future and after a stipulated time there was going to be something like a census. This would officially make the people in power/offices retire and give room for the competent younger ones. In this way, everyone would be allowed to live their dreams. I felt it was that easy. I was weakened and I told myself what I needed was to graduate with good grades, get a good job and raise a family. The tomorrow thing was all a fiction. I felt all schools should be banned from singing that marching song: it only deceives the students.

As I grew older, I started seeing what life really meant. The future is indeed real but there is no stipulated time for it. There is more to the future than just graduating with good grades, as a child all I understood was school and graduating with good grades. There is indeed more to life than being a doctor or lawyer. There is something called potential. You have to set goals. You can start living your dreams from today. We don’t have to wait for tomorrow, waiting for tomorrow is just a way of limiting ourselves, the tomorrow may never come, it is our responsibility to live our dreams, the government won’t live them for us.

As I write this article, I am in my second year in the University and I can tell you that the political, social and economic structure has not really changed. The same set of people still dominate everything and everywhere but surprisingly, we have people who have no popular background making it in life but these are people who made extra moves and who started planning their future a long time ago. There is more to life than waiting and procrastinating, we have our potentials, there is something built into each of us. Why not discover them? It doesn’t disturb school. Education is very important in life but there are a lot of things to be learnt outside school.

If you aspire to be a medical doctor why not make extra moves, discover! Explore! Launch extraordinary things relating to science. Isaac Newton developed the law of gravitation, calculus and three laws of motion at the age of twenty-three, all during two years that Cambridge was closed due to the plague. There is a little write-up that was sent to me by a WhatsApp contact which stated that a dropout of Cambridge or Harvard is equivalent to a PhD holder from a Nigerian university. I was totally devastated and amazed by that. Who says we can’t have a greater version of Isaac Newton, Bill Gates or even Mark Zuckerberg in Nigeria. We have subjected ourselves to limitations, but I refuse to be intimated. That is why I am writing this article.

Opeyemi Awoyemi, Ayodeji Adewunmi, and Olalekan Olude started Jobberman on the campus of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife. is an employment website and has beem described by Forbes as West-Africa’s most popular job search engine and aggregator. They were even recognised by Mark Zuckerberg for their efforts in the technology and employment sectors in Nigeria. They created an opportunity themselves and gave other people different opportunities; Jobberman has definitely contributed to creating employment in Nigeria.

Opportunities can be created by ourselves, we don’t always need to wait for them to come. Why not make a move today, sooner or later your moves would be noticed. About three days ago I read about DJ Obi who is set to break the record for the longest DJ set in the world. He believed he could do it and he set out to play continuously for 240 hours and I am positive he would break the record and for the first time set the world record for Nigeria.

We breed more youths with Facebook and Instagram swags than those with innovations. There is nothing that can’t be done in a new way, be you a writer, musician, model, actress, lawyer, doctor, blogger, fashion designer or make up artist. There are new ways things can be done, it just entails innovations and the ability to discover. Social media has even made things easier, but there is more to it than just chatting and monitoring other people’s progress in life. A lot of people make fortunes from this social media. Take a look at SISIYEMMIE, she is a lifestyle blogger and she made something tangible out of her life via social media. There are a lot of people like that who have used this ordinary things in extraordinary ways.

I think even our leaders don’t believe in this generation of ours and that is why we are always left behind. We lack active and sensitive youths, we breed a lot of those who are quick to laugh and make caricature of everything. We need youths who are active in political and developmental aspects of our country, we need youths who are assertive and are always ready to take up any challenge in the quest for what they really want.

The more we keep quiet, the more we portray ourselves as vision-less and dumb as they really think we are, things may really be difficult but it is 100% possible for us to solve our problems ourselves, we all have something built in us, we just have to discover them and start making use of them. No matter how difficult things may look, there is always a sweet side of it.

I am putting every Nigerian youth out there to a challenge. It is our time to make it happen, the future has come. The “tomorrow” is today, enough of the limitation and intimidation by our leaders. We now crave for what is truly ours, we want to be relevant and accorded our due respect. All this depends on us, let us keep our heads high, make good use of whatever is built in us. We are the leaders of today so let us take charge and help Nigeria regain her rightful place among the committee of nations. It is possible! Let us make it happen! It depends on you and me!!

BY: AGEMO, Oluwabukola Miriam (guest writer from UNILAG)
Founder, “Arise African Child” Movement

How Reading Impacts Knowledge

How Reading Impacts Knowledge

Reading, according to the Oxford Advanced Learner’s dictionary, is defined as the process or act of looking at and understanding the meaning of written or printed word or symbols. The concept of reading is to learn; impact knowledge; to grow; to emphasise; to understand; to marvel, and to wonder. Reading is the root of strength of an individual even of a nation, hundreds of millions is allocated towards clothing and cosmetic just to take care of our outward and physical appearances. It is just a pity and very unfortunate that very little amount of Naira is spent on our inward strength which includes knowledge.

Reading really impacts knowledge. It helps in developing our cognitive domain which gives us the ability to solve problems and generate creative ideas. I personally, can now boast of a mind that can generate many thoughts per minute, per hour and per day. Not thoughts that can change my life alone but also of those living around me and my nation as a well. Reading also helps us in developing habits and virtues that can change our thoughts and help us live a life worth emulating.

Reading indeed is a fountain of knowledge. When we read we get unlimited knowledge and information. Continual reading is a major source of knowledge and information, it is something important in our life and our major key to success in life. Reading as a process and science has helped me acquire many forms of knowledge that has improved my personal thinking and enhanced my skills.

Reading also makes us conscious and it awakens our knowledge towards things happening around us which includes: political development, social and economic development, values and cultures of different societies and even contemporary social issues and how they can be curbed and tackled.

Readers they say are leaders. Reading has me helped me as a person in developing various skills which includes leadership skills. Being a great lover of biographies, inspirational books and spiritual books, they have given me a sense of leadership and empowered me with various skills necessary in helping others solve their problems. Biographies have helped me to know about people’s sojourn in life, the problems encountered and how to solve such problems. Inspirational books are awesome, they make me see myself as a character in the book and they also teach success and leadership strategies. Spiritual books help me grow in union with God and he uses me to impact other people’s lives and give them a good direction and sense of living. Therefore, having more clarity and understanding God’s purpose for my life.

Reading really feeds our minds. There is a saying that “you are what you read.” The type of materials you read has a great impact either negative or positive. The human brain is like a computer that is a continuous ongoing creative machine that never ceases. Our minds, like a computer, needs to be fed with information to keep it stimulated and reading is the best source of knowledge we can feed our brains with, because without information we become stagnant.

Reading helps in improving our educational standards, it also gives us higher knowledge and intelligence than those who do not read at all. Reading also helps in reducing stress, as a book can easily distract one from our burdens in the midst of activities and stressful days. It also helps in increasing analytical thinking, increases vocabularies, and in developing good writing skills and having prioritised goals.
In conclusion, reading for me is not all about escaping into a world of fiction, it is also about providing a context in our environment both real and imaginative. If we can breed many good readers in our country today, Nigeria would be able to regain her rightful place among the committee of nations because her citizens would have been fully equipped with the necessary skills for her development.
Reading is a real essence of living and a mighty fount of knowledge. It helps to be outstanding when others are standing and to stand out when others are outstanding.

Founder, “Arise African Child” Movement